Exploring the Fascinating Science Behind Tattoo Ink Pigments and Colors

As a tattoo enthusiast, I have always been captivated by the artistry and beauty of tattoos.  One aspect that has particularly piqued my curiosity is the science behind tattoo ink pigments and colors. 

In this humble article, I would like to share some insights I have gained through my own research and conversations with tattoo artists.

Let's delve into the captivating world where art and science intertwine to create lasting works of body art.

The composition of tattoo ink is not simply a single pigment; rather, it is a carefully crafted blend of various components.  The pigments used in tattoo inks are typically derived from metals, minerals, or organic compounds. 

These pigments are mixed with carrier solutions, which help evenly distribute the pigments and facilitate their absorption into the skin during the tattooing process.

 

The Science of Pigment Dispersion: History, Breakthroughs, and Advancements

The process of pigment dispersion, which plays a vital role in tattoo ink formulation, has a rich history intertwined with scientific breakthroughs and advancements.  Understanding how pigments disperse within tattoo ink is crucial for achieving consistent color distribution and long-term stability in body art.

The history of pigment dispersion can be traced back thousands of years to ancient civilizations.  Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans used various natural substances, such as carbon black, ochre, and indigo, to create pigments for body adornment.  However, the scientific understanding of pigment dispersion remained relatively limited until more recent times.

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, significant advancements were made in the field of pigment dispersion.  One notable breakthrough was the invention of the ball mill, a mechanical device that grinds pigments into fine particles.  The ball mill revolutionized the dispersion process by providing a more efficient and controlled method for achieving consistent particle sizes.

In the 1920s, the pioneering work of Professor Hermann Diserens revolutionized the field of pigment dispersion.  Diserens developed a technique called "wet grinding" that involved using a liquid medium to disperse pigments.  This method allowed for better control over particle size and resulted in more stable and vibrant colors.  Diserens' work laid the foundation for modern pigment dispersion techniques.

 

Advancements in Pigment Stabilization

Over the years, scientists and tattoo ink manufacturers have continuously sought to improve pigment stability in tattoo inks.  In the 1980s, Dr. Bill Walters and Dr. Wim Verdaasdonk made significant contributions to the field with their research on tattoo ink formulation.  They developed new methods for stabilizing pigments and optimizing ink properties, leading to improved color retention and reduced pigment migration.

More recent advancements have focused on nano-particle pigments, which have smaller particle sizes than traditional pigments.  Nano-pigments offer enhanced color saturation and improved dispersion due to their increased surface area.  Additionally, advances in encapsulation techniques have allowed for the development of microencapsulated pigments, which further enhance color stability by protecting pigments from external factors.

 

The Science of Tattoo Pigment Stability

One crucial aspect of tattoo ink is its long-term stability.  Tattoo artists meticulously select pigments based on their ability to resist fading and maintain their color intensity over time.  The stability of tattoo pigments is influenced by factors such as the size of the pigment particles, their chemical composition, and how deeply they are deposited into the skin.  It is important to note that exposure to sunlight, aging, and individual skin characteristics can also affect the longevity and vibrancy of tattoo colors.

 

The Future of Pigment Dispersion

As technology and scientific understanding continue to evolve, the future of pigment dispersion in tattoo ink looks promising.  Ongoing research aims to develop even more stable and long-lasting pigments, as well as explore environmentally friendly and biocompatible alternatives.  With advancements, tattoo inks of the future may offer improved vibrancy, longevity, and safety.

The science of pigment dispersion in tattoo ink has come a long way since its ancient origins.  Through historical breakthroughs, such as the ball mill and wet grinding techniques, and the contributions of scientists like Hermann Diserens, our understanding of pigment dispersion has greatly advanced.  Continued research and development in pigment stabilization techniques, nano-particle pigments, and encapsulation technologies promise exciting possibilities for the future of tattoo ink.  By delving into the science behind pigment dispersion, we can appreciate the complexities involved in creating vibrant and long-lasting body art.

 

Understanding Color Theory

Color theory plays a pivotal role in tattooing, as it determines the vibrant hues and shades that adorn our skin.  Different pigments are responsible for the wide array of colors available in tattoo ink.  For example, carbon-based pigments create black and gray shades, while metal-based pigments produce vivid and vibrant colors like reds, blues, and yellows.  Organic pigments derived from plants and animals can also be used to create specific shades.

Color theory revolves around the three primary colors: red, blue, and yellow. These primary colors are the foundation from which all other colors are derived.  By combining different ratios of primary colors, secondary colors such as green, orange, and purple can be created.  Further combinations lead to tertiary colors, resulting in an extensive palette of possibilities for tattoo artists to work with.

When it comes to tattoo ink pigments, the selection process involves careful consideration of color vibrancy and longevity.  Tattoo artists rely on their understanding of color theory to choose pigments that will maintain their intensity over time.  Vibrant colors like reds, blues, and yellows often require metal-based pigments, while carbon-based pigments are used for black and gray shades.

Organic pigments derived from plants and animals are another fascinating aspect of color theory in tattoo ink.  These pigments offer a range of natural hues, allowing artists to create earthy tones like browns, greens, and ochres. By combining different pigments and utilizing their knowledge of color theory, tattoo artists can achieve remarkable depth and dimension in their artwork.

The Influence of Skin Tone

An essential consideration in color theory is the impact of an individual's skin tone on the appearance of tattoo pigments.  Skin tone plays a significant role in how colors are perceived and can affect the final outcome of a tattoo.  Tattoo artists carefully evaluate the undertones of a person's skin to select pigments that will complement and enhance their natural complexion.  By considering the interplay between skin tone and tattoo ink pigments, artists can create harmonious and visually striking designs.

Color Mixing and Techniques

Tattoo artists employ various techniques to achieve precise color mixing and shading.  By understanding color theory, they can create gradients, transitions, and realistic textures within their artwork.  Techniques such as blending, stippling, and layering pigments allow for smooth color transitions and subtle variations in tone and shade.  Mastery of these techniques ensures that the colors in a tattoo harmonize and bring the design to life.

Innovation in Color Theory

Advancements in color theory have led to exciting innovations in the tattoo industry.  Some tattoo ink manufacturers now offer pre-mixed ink sets specifically curated to achieve optimal color combinations.  These sets take into account the principles of color theory, offering artists a convenient and reliable way to create visually stunning tattoos.

 

Skin and Healing Process

Understanding how tattoo ink interacts with the skin is essential for both artists and tattoo enthusiasts.  During the tattooing process, the needle pierces the outermost layer of the skin, known as the epidermis, and deposits the ink into the dermis—the deeper layer of skin.  Over time, the skin's healing process helps to stabilize the pigment and create the final tattoo design.  Factors such as skin type, aftercare, and individual healing abilities can influence the outcome of the tattoo and its color retention.

See our article on The Four Stages of Tattoo Recovery: Oozing, Itching, Peeling, and Aftercare.

 

Conclusion

The science behind tattoo ink pigments and colors is a fascinating blend of artistry, chemistry, and biology.  From the careful selection of pigments to their interaction with the skin and the factors influencing color stability, there is much more to tattoos than meets the eye.  As a humble enthusiast, I have come to appreciate the intricate balance between creativity and scientific knowledge that tattoo artists possess.  So, the next time you admire a vibrant tattoo, remember that behind its beauty lies a complex science that makes it a lasting work of art on the canvas of the human body.

 

We Make Ink Do More

Paul Park, The Xtreme Team

For the most recent tattoo art made with Xtreme Inks by tattoo artists who are pushing the boundaries of self-expression, check out our Instagram.

For more information on our collector’s tattoo ink sets, please take a look at our piece on Xtreme Inks: Artist Collections.

Latest Posts

TAGS:

#AnimalTattoos#asianart #tattoodesign #irezumi #calligraphytattoo #mandalatattoo#BlackworkTattoos #TattooArtistry #BodyArt #PersonalExpression #TattooSymbolism #TattooCulture #TattooDesigns #AncientTribalTattoos #ModernTattoos #PersonalNarratives#BodybuildingAndTattoos#BodyPositive#CleanLines#CleanTattooEnvironment#ColorPalette#DelicateDesigns#Empowerment#FineLineTattoos#FineLineTattooTips#geishatattoo #japaneseculture #irezumi #neotraditionaltattoo#HealingThroughArt#InkSterilization#IntricateTattoos#MuscleGrowth#ParamedicalTattooing#PhysiqueAndTattoos#PrisonTattoos #TattooCulture #InmateIdentity #TattooHistory #InmateSurvival #PrisonCulture#Scars#SkinArt#StretchMarks#TatiannaB#TattooAftercare#TattooApplication#TattooArt#TattooArtistsGuide#TattooCare#TattooColors#TattooGuide#TattooHealthConsequences#Tattooing #Architecture #ArchitecturalTattoos #LandmarkTattoos #ArtForms#Tattooing #CollageTattoos #TattooArt #PersonalStories #BodyArt#TattooInk#TattooInkSterilization#TattooRemastering #OldTattoos #TattooArtists #RodgerLaw #BrunoLima #XtremeTeam#TattooRisks#TattooSafety#TattooStyles#TattooTechniques3d effect tattoo3D Printing3d tattoo3D tattoos7 signs of intelligence7 signs you're a talented tattoo artist7 signs you're incredibly talentedAbstract TattoosAcceptanceaccessory packageaccurate stencilachieving optimal resultsAcne-Prone Skinacrylic-freeadditivesadjustable tattoo machineadjusting ink consistencyAdventureAdvocacyaesthetic appealAesthetic ConsiderationsAfricaAfter Inked Tattoo Aftercare LotionAftercareage of tattooAgricultureair compressorAlcohol ConsumptionAll Starallergic reactionsallergic reactions to inkallergic reactions to tattoosalternative inksAlternative MethodsAlternative Tattoo Practiceamericana tattoosanchor tattooAncient AngkorAncient TattoosAncient TraditionsAndy Warholanesthetic side effectsAnimal IdentificationAnimal Resource CenterAnimal SheltersAnimal SpiritsAnimal TattoosAnimal WelfareAnimated Film SeriesAnimationAnimeanti-aging skincareantibioticsantiseptic ingredientsAnxietyAotearoaapanese tattoosapprenticeshiparmature barArtart and cultureart and fashionArt AppreciationArt CollectionArt CommodificationArt EvolutionArt Exhibitionart formsart high school in PolandArt MarketArt Movementart stylesart therapyartist collectionsartist-client relationshipartistic brillianceartistic challengesartistic expressionArtistic growthArtistic InnovationArtistic Journeyartistic prowessartistic shadingartistic skillsartistic stylesartistic symbolismArtistryartists use neutral colors forAsh KetchumAsiaAsianTribalTattoosassembling a tattoo gunAstrologyAstrology TattoosAstronomy TattoosAsuka LangleyAt-Home Tattooingathletic achievements tattoos.athletic tattoosato legaspiAto Legaspi's Realism Color Setattoo HistoryAwarenessbback tattoosbacteriaBaking TattoosBangkok InkBangkok Tattoosbarrier creamsBear TattoosBeauty StandardsBecoming a tattoo artistbeginner guideBeginner Tattoo ArtistBeginner Tattoo Artistsbeginnersbest blue tattoo inkbest female artistsbest female tattoo artistsbest green tattoo inkbest inkbest street art tattoosbest tattoo inkBest Tattoo PensBeverage TattoosBicep TattoosBio-InksBiomechanical TattoosBiosecuritybird tattooBirthmarksBlack & Grey tattoosblack and gray tattoosblack and grey tattooBlack and Grey TattooingBlack and Grey TattoosBlack Fridayblack inkBlack Magic Tattoo Inkblack tattoo inkblackbird tattooBlacklight TattoosBlackwork TattooBlackwork Tattoosbleaching propertiesblending tattoo inkBlockchain Technologyblood thinnersBlood Thinningblood-borne pathogensblue and green tattoo inkBlue Butterfly Tattooblue inkblue ink symbolblue tattooblue tattoo inkblue tattoo ink meaningbody artbody art and identityBody Art in IndiaBody Art.Body modificationBody Positivitybody tattoosBold Colorsbold fontsbold inkbold tattoosBook CharactersBook-Inspired TattoosBotanical Tattoosbottlingbrand identitybrand loyaltybrand reputationbrandsbreaking beauty standardsbreaking stereotypesbreathable barrierBrushstroke CalligraphyBrushstroke TattoosBuddhismBuddhist tattoosBuilding a portfoliobusiness insurancebusiness managementbusiness planButterfly TattoocalciumCalligraphy StylesCalligraphy TattoosCambodian MilitaryCambodian spiritual tattooscan you tattoo over black ink?carbon inkcarcinogenic riskscarcinogenscarrier liquids in tattooingCat TattoosCelestial SymbolsCelestial TattoosCeltic Folklorechair rental for tattoo artistschallengeschallenging gender normschallenging processCharacter TattoosCharactersChef Tattooschemical reactionschemical stabilityChest TattoosCheyenne Hawk PenChineseTattoosChiShenchlorinecircle tattooCitrus FruitsClean Linescleaning guidelinescleaning solutionclientClient Collaborationclient communicationClient Relationshipclient safetyclogged poresCloud StorageclumpingCollaborationcollaborative creativitycollagencolorcolor consistencyColor Enhancerscolor fadingcolor mixingcolor paletteColor Precisioncolor psychologycolor realismcolor retentioncolor saturationcolor spreadingColor SymbolismColor Tattooscolor theorycolor theory in tattooscolor-changing inkcolored tattooscolorfastnesscoloring techniquesComic TattoosCommitmentCommunitycommunity engagementcompatibilitycompatibility with skin tonescompetitioncompositionconcentrationconsistencyConstellation TattoosconsultationContact Dermatitiscontact screwContemporary Artcontrastcorneocytescorporate social responsibilityCosmetic TattooingcosmicCosmic TattoosCosplayCostume Playcountry-specific tattoo rulescover up tattoocover-up tattoosCraniofacial Surgerycreative collaborationCreative ExpressionCreative Ideascreative processCreativitycross-contaminationCrown ChakraCrown of the HeadCulinary ProfessionCulinary TattoosculturalCultural AppreciationCultural AppropriationCultural CommentaryCultural Cuisine Tattooscultural expressioncultural heritagecultural identitycultural impactcultural influencescultural narrativescultural originscultural perspectivesCultural PreservationCultural Respectcultural sensitivitycultural shiftcultural significancecultural significance of tattooscultural symbolsCultural Tattoo HistoryCultural TattoosCultural tattoos Southeast AsiaCultural traditionCultural TraditionsCulture and Tattooscursive fontscustom designCustom Designscustom shadesCustom Tattoo Designcustomer relationsdandelion tattooDark Horse Tattoodark tattoo inkDayakTutangdeep black inkDekudelayed reaction to tattoosdelicate tattoosDepressionDepthDermal DiseasesdermatitisDermatographydermatologistDermatologyDermisdermis layerdesigner collectionsdesired resultDeveloping drawing skillsDiabetic PatientsDiagnostic MethodsDigital ArtDigital Art ToolsDigital Revolutiondilution solutiondiscolorationDisney Tattoosdisplay fontsdisposable cartridgesdistilled waterDiversityDIYDIY TattooDIY tattoo stencilDIY TattoosdocumentationDotworkDr. WooDragonhawk Mast PenDrawing skillsDream ImageryDream SymbolsDream-Inspired Tattoosdry skindual functionalitydurable constructiondurable tattoo inkdynamic tattoo designse-commerceeagle tattooEarning potentialeasier tattooingeco-friendly inkseczemaEducationEdward Elricelegant tattoosElimination ChallengesEmerging Artistsemerging technologiesEmma Kierzekemotional connectionemotional milestonesemotional paletteEmotional SignificanceEmpowering ArtistsEmpowering SymbolsEmpowermentempowerment tattoosend resultsEndoscopic Tattooingengraved tattoosenhanced realismEnso CircleEnso Tattoosentering the skinentrepreneurshipenvironmental awarenessenvironmental responsibilityEphemeral Artepidermisepisode themeEren Yeagerergonomicsetched effectethereal tattoosEthereum BlockchainEthical Considerationsethical tattoo practicesethical tattoo productsEthical TattooingEU regulationEuropeevolutionevolving tattoo technologyExo Black Tattoo InkExo WhiteExperienced tattoo artistexperimenting with inkexpert tattoo artistsexpiration dateextra blackExtra WhiteExtraterrestrial Tattoo DesignsExtremeTravelEyelash Technicianfacial tattoosfadingfair competitionfake info about tattoosfake skin practicefalcon tattoofamily tattoosFan DedicationFandomfashion collaborationfashion industry.FDA regulationFDA regulation of tattoo inksFDA regulations on tattoo ink.feather tattoofemale tattoo artistfemale tattoo artistsfemale tattoosfeminine tattoosfeminist tattoosfilm dressingFinding a mentorFinding ClientsFine Artfine line tattoosfine particle sizefine-line techniquesFirst tattooFitzpatrick ScaleFK Irons ExoFK Irons SpektraFlash Challengesflat needlesflower tattoosFolkloreFood and Drink TattoosFood Inspired TattoosFood Lovers Tattoosforearm tattoosForensic MedicineFree For Artistsfreedom tattoosfreehand tattoofreehand techniqueFreemasonryfruit tattoo practiceFruit Tattooingfruit tattoosFundraisingFuture of Tattoosfuture trendsfuture trends in tattoo removalFuturistic TattoosGalaxy Tattoosgaming cultureGastronomyGen ZGenZTravelgeometric designsgeometric tattoosglobal practicesglobal talentglobal tattoo standardsglovesGlow-in-the-Dark TattoosglycerinGokuGold Tattoo InkGood Luck Charmsgothgoth tattoosgothic fontsgothic portraitsgothic tattoosgothicaGraffiti ArtistGranulomasgranulomas from tattoosgray realismGreek Mythologygreen ink supplygreen soapgreen tattoo inkgreywashguide to mixing colorsguide to mixing tattoo inksHand and Finger Tattooshand tattoosHand-Poked Tattooshand-tappingHands-on experiencehandwritten fontshard waterHarry Potter TattoosHawaiian tattooshawk tattooHealinghealing processhealing tattoo inkhealth and safetyhealth consciousnessHealth Directiveshealth regulationsHealth Riskshealth risks of tattooshealthcare providerheart tattooheavy metalsheavy metals in tattoo inkhectograph transfer paperHenna Practiceherb tattoosheritagehigh-quality inkhigh-quality tattoo inkHigher ConsciousnesshighlightingHighly experienced tattoo artistHindu tattooshiring staffHistorical SymbolsHistorical Tattooshistorical usehistoryhistory of tattooHistory of Tattooshistory of the tattoo needlehome tattoo removal techniquesHome Tattooinghomemade tattoo inkHoneydew Practicehori needleshormonal medicationsHorror Tattooshow to be a professional tattoo artist.how to begin tattoohow to dispose of tattoo inkhow to learn how to tattoohow to mix tattoo inkshow to prevent contamination in tattoo inkhow to start tattooinghow to store tattoo inkhow to use wetting solutionhuman canvashummingbird tattooHydrationhygieneHygiene and Safetyhygiene and sanitationIconic ImageryIconsIdentityIdentity FormationImaginationImmortalized TattoosImmune Responseimmune response modifiersImpulsive DecisionsInclusivityinclusivity.Indian Tattoo CultureIndian Tattoo HistoryIndianTribalTattoosindigenous artindigenous culturesIndigenous Tattoo TraditionsIndividual ExpressionindividualityIndonesianTattoosIndustry StandardsinfectiInfection RiskInfection Risksinfinity symbolinfinity symbol tattooinfinity tattoo designinfluencer marketingInk Absorptionink additivesink behaviorink breakdownink consistencyink contaminationink contamination risksink degradationink diluentsink dilutionink flowInk InteractionInk Longevityink manufacturersInk MasterInk Migrationink mixingInk Precisionink propertiesink qualityink quality and safetyink quality standardsink removalInk Reviewink saturationink setsink shelf lifeink storageInk Swatchesink textureink versatilityInk Vibrancyink viscosityInked Practiceinking in greenInkjecta Flite X1inkjet printerInner StrengthinnovationInnovation In Inkinorganic pigmentsInspirationInstagramintelligentintelligent signsinternational tattoo lawsInterpersonal skillsiPadsIrezumiirritationitchinessitchingitching after tattooiwiJapanese craftsmanshipJapanese FolkloreJapanese tattoo cultureJapanese tattoo needlesJapanese tattoo traditionsJapanese tattoosJokerKaneki KenkapeKat Von DKeith HaringKelly Dotykeratinizationkevin boudreauKielcekirituhikorukosher inkKwadron proteamlaser printerlaser tattoo removallatest postsleaf tattoosLearninglearning to tattooleg tattooslegacylegal aspectsLegal ConsiderationsLegendsLGBTQ+license renewallicensing feesLichenoid ReactionsLidocainelidocaine and tattooslife phaseslifelike portraitLifestylelight effects in tattooslightweight tattoo machinelimitationsliner machinelining and shading inkLining WhiteLion TattoosLiterary QuotesLiterature TattoosLivestock managementLivestock TattooingLiving Tattoo Artlocation of tattoolong-term exposurelong-term health effectslongevityLongevity symbolslove tattoosLuffymachine compatibilitymachine lubricationmagnesiummagnum needlesmainstream culturemainstream mediaMainstream Tattoosmaintenance tipsmale tattoomale tattoo ideasmanamanaging expectationsmandala tattoosmanual tattoo transfermanufacturersMaori cultureMaori Ta MokoMarine life tattoosmaritime-inspired fontsmarketingMarvel-inspired tattoosmasking skin conditionsMasonic SymbolsMasonic TattoosmatauMatt Hodelmeaningful tattoosMedical AlertMedical Alert Tattoosmedical field tattoo usesMedical RisksMedical Tattooingmedical tattoosmedical-grade alcoholmedicationsmemorial tattoosmemoriesMen's TattoosMental Healthmental health tattoosMentoringmentorshipMentorship in Tattooingmetallic inksMetallic TattoosMichal Wursztmicro tattoosMicropigmentationMiddle EastMikasa AckermanmiliaMillennialTravelMindfulnessmineral contentmineral-based tattoo inksminimalist tattoosmisconceptionsmixingmixing containermixing sticksmixing tattoo inksmixing techniquesmodern designsmodern fontsmodern tattoo artistsModern TattooingModern Tattooing in IndiaModern Technologymoisturized skinmoisturizingMolesMoon TattoosMoral Lessonsmountain tattooMoviesMRI complications with tattoosmulti-colored worksMuseum ArtMusic SymbolsMusic TattoosMythological TattoosMythologyMythology in Tattoosmyths about tattoosname tattoosNanotechnologyNarutoNative American tattoosNatsu Dragneelnatural healing processnatural oilsnatural remedies for tattoo removalNatural tattoo inkNature Tattoosneck tattoosneedle compatibilityneedle depthneedle gaugeneedle identificationneedle penetrationneedle sizeNeo TrNeo-traditional TattoosNeotraditional Tattoosneutral color setneutral colorsNew School 12 color setNew School tattoosnew tools in tattoosNew York Historical SocietyNew ZealandNFTsNightlifeNikko HurtadoNo Facenon-toxic materialsNorse mythologyNorth AmericaNumbing OintmentsNurturingOceaniaOld School tattoosoldest tattooOnline Platformsonline shoppingoozing and peeling after tattooOptical Illusionsorangesorganic inkorganic inksorganic pigmentsOrganic Tattoo InkOriental styleoriginsornamental tattoosOSHAotziowl tattooowning a tattoo studioPac-ManPain ManagementPain ReductionPain TolerancepassionPassion for tattooingpatient care advancementsPatient Identificationpeacock tattooPerceptionPermanent ArtPermanent Inkpermanent makeupPersonal EmpowermentPersonal ExpressionPersonal FreedomPersonal GrowthPersonal IdentityPersonal Journeypersonal journeyspersonal meaningPersonal NarrativesPersonal Significancepersonal stylePersonal SymbolismPersonal TattoosPersonal transformationPersonalized tattoo experiencepersonalizing tattoosPet Identification.pH changepH levelsPhoenix Tattoosphoto-realisticphotoallergic reactionPhotoallergic ReactionsPhotostability.Pig Skin Tattoopigmentpigment allergiespigment chemistspigment concentrationpigment dilutionpigment dispersionpigment dispersion sciencePigment Hypersensitivitypigment lightfastnesspigment migrationpigment qualitypigment-to-carrier ratioPigmentspinkspixel artPlaneta Biuplanning tattooPlastic Surgerypneumatic tattoo machinesPokémonPolandPolish tattoo artistPolycyclic Aromatic HydrocarbonspolynesianpoolPop ArtPop Culturepop culture influencePop Culture Referencespop culture tattoosPopular Sci-Fi Franchisespopular tattoos for womenPopularitypore blockageportable tattoo ink systemportable tattoo kitportfolio buildingPost-Operative Tattoospower supply settingsPower Tattoopractice and patiencePractice Materialsprecautionsprecision in tattooingprehistoric tattoospreservationpreventing smearingpridePrilocainePrimary Aromatic AminesProcreateProcreate Swatchesproductionprofessional considerations for tattoosprofessional developmentProfessional Suppliesprofessional tattoo artistsprofessional tattoo artists.Professional Tattoo Gearprofessional tattoo removalprofessional tattooingprofessionalismProfessionalTattooingproper ink storage