A 2003 Harris Poll reported that 16% of U.S. adults have tattoos, including over a third of those aged 25–29. However, despite the art form's increasing prevalence, the toxicology of tattoos remains relatively unexplored (with few major studies conducted since 2003). Concerns have particularly been raised about certain components in tattoo inks, notably heavy metals.
In 2005, a significant legal development occurred when a lawsuit was filed against nine tattoo ink companies. This lawsuit, set for trial in October 2005, was based on violations of California’s Proposition 65. This law mandates that Californians must be warned before being exposed to chemicals known to cause cancer, birth defects, or other reproductive harm. The American Environmental Safety Institute (AESI), led by Deborah Sivas, initiated this lawsuit. AESI's focus was partly due to research suggesting that teenage girls formed a significant market for tattoos.
The primary concern highlighted was not the acute harmfulness of the inks but the chronic exposure to certain metals, particularly lead. Exposure to metals like titanium and aluminum, commonly used as colorants in tattoos, was under scrutiny. More alarming was the potential presence of antimony, arsenic, beryllium, chromium, cobalt, lead, nickel, and selenium in inks using nonmetal colorants. According to Sivas, the amount of lead in the ink used for a 3 by 5-inch tattoo could range from 1 to 23 micrograms, significantly higher than the 0.5 micrograms per day limit set by Proposition 65.
Understanding the implications of metal exposure from tattoos is complex. Once a tattoo heals, it consists of ink particles trapped within skin cells like dermal fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells. Assessing exposure over time is challenging, as pointed out by Westley Wood, president of Unimax Supply, a tattoo equipment supplier and ink producer involved in the AESI lawsuit. Wood highlights the difficulty in determining whether exposure should be counted daily for a lifetime or if it dissipates within a shorter period.
Contrasting these concerns, physician Linda Dixon, president of the American Academy of Micropigmentation, asserts that metal toxicity has not been a significant observed issue in the tattoo industry. However, she acknowledges the lack of transparency and information regarding pigments in traditional tattoo products, often kept as trade secrets. Dixon advocates for more scientifically-based information and suggests publishing a list of known safe and toxic pigments. She emphasizes the importance of industry knowledge about colors and pigments, considering that tattoo inks are subject to regulation by the Food and Drug Administration as cosmetics and color additives, though active regulation of tattooing and pigments is not currently pursued by the agency.
Are There Any Harmful Chemicals in Traditional Tattoo Inks?
Traditional tattoo inks have been a fundamental aspect of the tattooing process for centuries. These inks are used to create the diverse array of designs and images seen in tattoos across various cultures and societies. Traditionally, these inks are composed of two main components: pigments and carriers. The pigments provide the color and can be derived from a variety of sources. Historically, these sources included minerals, plants, and even in some cases, synthetic materials. The carriers, which can be alcohol, water, or glycerin, act as a solvent for the pigments, helping to evenly distribute the color and ease its application into the skin. Across cultures, some additional, questionable ingredients were added for a wide variety of beliefs, such as snake venom.
The composition of traditional tattoo inks has evolved over time, with advancements in chemistry and a better understanding of health and safety standards. However, the concern about harmful chemicals in these inks has persisted. These concerns are largely centered around the presence of heavy metals and other potentially toxic substances in the pigments. Metals like mercury, lead, and cadmium have been used historically for their vibrant colors but are known to pose health risks. Some black inks have been found to contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are also potentially harmful.
A significant point of discussion in the industry is the regulation of tattoo inks. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) oversees the regulation of tattoo inks as cosmetics and color additives. However, the FDA does not actively regulate the practice of tattooing or the composition of the inks used. This lack of comprehensive regulation means the responsibility often falls on manufacturers and artists to ensure the safety of the inks.
Exposure to harmful chemicals in tattoo ink can lead to various health issues, including allergic reactions, skin irritations, and, in rare cases, more severe toxic reactions that can impact overall health. It is, therefore, important for individuals considering getting a tattoo to be aware of these risks. Discussing the components of the ink with the tattoo artist and choosing reputable studios that use high-quality, safety-tested inks is advisable.